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Overview

OFR 2014-1082 cover
Cover of USGS Open-File Report 2014-1082, doi:10.3133/ofr20141082.

Scientific Issue and Relevance

Soil is a critical natural resource that plays a key role in determining human health and ecosystem integrity, supporting food production, and the natural recycling of carbon and essential nutrients in the environment. As stated by McNeill and Winiwarter (2004): "Soil ecosystems remain firmly, but uncharismatically, at the foundations of human life." On the other hand, many communities dispose of solid and liquid wastes from households and from agricultural and industrial processes by dumping them onto the soil. Either through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption, soil can be a pathway for potentially toxic chemicals of natural or anthropogenic origin to enter the human body (Abrahams, 2002; Oliver, 1997; Plumlee and Ziegler, 2003). Although soil is so important in everyday lives, knowledge of the concentration and distribution of naturally occurring and man-made chemicals in soils is surprisingly limited. Such information on our Nation's soils is needed to better assess risk to both humans and ecosystems, guide decision making, and foster more integrated environmental regulation.

Beginning in 2002 in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada, the Mexican Geological Survey (Servicio Geológico Mexicano, or SGM), and other stakeholders in all three countries, the USGS Geochemical Landscapes Project established a sample design and developed sampling and analytical protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. This survey will provide (1) systematic data on background variations in soil geochemistry to support risk assessment and management; (2) a new understanding of the links between soil geochemical factors and environmental and human health; and (3) user-friendly data that support a wide range of applications, issues and disciplines. From 2004-2007, pilot studies were carried out in all three countries to test and refine these protocols. The results of the pilot studies were published as 21 papers in the journal Applied Geochemistry in 2009. In 2007, sampling was initiated by the USGS in the conterminous U.S. (4,871 sites). The sampling protocols represent both depth-based and horizon-based samples. One depth-based sample is taken from 0 to 5 cm regardless of what soil horizon this represents. A composite of the A horizon (the uppermost mineral soil) and a composite of the C horizon (usually the weathered parent material of the overlying soil) are also collected at each site. The 0-5-cm and A-horizon samples are more likely to represent anthropogenic influence on soil composition, and the C-horizon sample will be more representative of geologic influence. Each sample is sieved to <2 mm and then ground to <150 µm prior to chemical analysis for more than major and trace elements. The sampling was completed in 2010 with over 13,000 samples now ready for chemical analysis, quantitative mineralogical determinations for selected minerals, and determination of selected soil pathogens (USEPA providing partial funding for pathogens).

The relevance and impact of establishing a consistent national-scale soil geochemical database for the United States was demonstrated by the stakeholders who participated in the development of the project and by the collaborators who have assisted in sampling or provided funding for sampling and analysis. In 2003, the Soil Geochemistry Workshop was held in Denver to develop recommendations for the design, sampling protocols, and analytical protocols for a continental-scale soil geochemical survey.

The project has received an official letter of support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which stated "these data are enormously useful for risk assessment calculations and in explaining regional differences in the cleanup values used by the USEPA for Superfund sites in different states." The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center provided funding in 2010 to assist in soil sampling and in determining soil pathogens in the samples. This agency has a need to determine the background levels of naturally occurring high-priority biothreat agents in U.S. soils to establish appropriate cleanup levels if these agents should be used in an intentional contamination event. They recognized the usefulness of collaborating with the USGS in the ongoing sampling of the Nation under the Geochemical Landscapes Project. State Geological Surveys have recognized the importance of understanding the geochemistry of soils within their individual states. The state surveys of Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Nebraska conducted sampling in these states at no cost to the project. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has actively participated in the project by collecting all the samples in the states of North Dakota and South Dakota. The National Academy of Sciences has recognized the importance of the project and requested a briefing to the U.S. National Committee for Soil Science in April 2009. The project was also the subject of a short article titled "From Alaska to Yucatan, a Long-Awaited Soil Survey Takes Shape" in the June 11, 2004, issue of Science.

In summary, the need for the type of soil background data being produced by the project includes many agencies and disciplines throughout the government and private sectors of the U.S.

Research Activities

Our objectives were to get all these samples analyzed (chemistry, mineralogy, soil pathogens), quality check all the generated data, compile the data into a database, publish the raw data in a user-friendly manner, and develop interpretive publications based on the new data. A subtask focused on anthropogenic transport and cycling of mercury in various ecosystems. Our products addressed at least two of the strategic directions identified in the USGS science strategy for 2007-2017 (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007): 1) "Understanding Ecosystems", and 2) "The Role of Environment in Human Health." The soil geochemical database established provides the basis for future monitoring of soil composition at a national scale and for recognizing and quantifying broad-scale changes in soil geochemistry that result from natural or anthropogenic processes.

Journal Articles, Reports, and Book Chapters

Drew, L.J., Grunsky, E.C., Sutphin, D.M., and Woodruff, L.G., 2010, Multivariate analysis of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils along two continental-scale transects in North America: Science of the Total Environment, 409(1), pp. 218-227.

Ellefsen, K.J, and Smith, D.B., 2016, User's guide for GcClust—An R package for clustering of regional geochemical data: U.S. Geological Survey report Techniques and Methods 7–C13, 21 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/tm7c13.

Ellefsen, K.J., Smith, D.B., and Horton, J.D., 2014, A modified procedure for mixture-model clustering of regional geochemical data: Applied Geochemistry, 51, p. 315-326, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.10.011.

Gray, J.E., 2006, Evaluation of Trends of Mercury Deposition in Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, Idaho, using Reservoir Sediment Cores: U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report.

Gray, J.E., Fey, D.L., Holmes, C.W., and Lasorsa, B.K., 2005, Historical deposition and fluxes of mercury in Narraguinnep Reservoir, southwestern Colorado, USA: Applied Geochemistry, 20(1), p. 207-220, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2004.05.011.

Gray, J.E., and Hines, M.E., 2009, Biogeochemical mercury methylation influenced by reservoir eutrophication, Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, Idaho, USA: Chemical Geology, 258(3-4), p. 157-167, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.09.023.

Gray, J.E., Hines, M.E., Goldstein, H.L., and Reynolds, R.L., 2014, Mercury deposition and methylmercury formation in Narraguinnep Reservoir, southwestern Colorado, USA: Applied Geochemistry, 50, p. 82-90, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.09.001.

Gray, J.E., Hines, M.E., Krabbenhoft, D.P., and Thoms, B., 2012, Methylation of Hg downstream from the Bonanza Hg mine, Oregon: Applied Geochemistry, 27(1), p. 106-114. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.09.019.

Gray, J.E., Rimondi, V., Costagliola, P., Vaselli, O., and Lattanzi, P., 2014, Long-distance transport of Hg, Sb, and As from a mined area, conversion of Hg to methyl-Hg, and uptake of Hg by fish on the Tiber River basin, west-central Italy: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 36(1), p. 145-157, doi:10.1007/s10653-013-9525-z.

Gray, J.E., Theodorakos, P.M., Fey, D.L., and Krabbenhoft, D.P., 2015, Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 37(1), p. 35-48, doi:10.1007/s10653-014-9628-1.

Griffin, D.W., Silvestri, E.E., Bowling, C.Y., Boe, T., Smith, D.B., and Nichols, T.L., 2014, Anthrax and the Geochemistry of Soils in the Contiguous United States: Geosciences, 4(3), p. 114-127, doi:10.3390/geosciences4030114.

Grunsky, E.C., Drew, L.J., Woodruff, L.G., Friske, P.W.B., and Sutphin, D.M., 2013, Statistical variability of the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils in the Maritime Provinces of Canada and part of the Northeast United States: Geochemistry, Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 13(4), p. 249-266, doi:10.1144/geochem2012-138.

Reimann, C., Englmaier, P., Fabian, K., Gough, L., Lamothe, P., and Smith, D., 2015, Biogeochemical plant–soil interaction: Variable element composition in leaves of four plant species collected along a south–north transect at the southern tip of Norway: Science of the Total Environment, 506-507, p. 480-495, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.079.

Reimann, C., Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., and Flem, B., 2011, Pb-concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east–west transect across the United States: Applied Geochemistry, 26(9-10), p. 1623-1631, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.04.018.

Rimondi, V., Bardelli, F., Benvenuti, M., Costagliola, P., Gray, J.E., and Lattanzi, P., 2014, Mercury speciation in the Mt. Amiata mining district (Italy): Interplay between urban activities and mercury contamination: Chemical Geology, 380, p. 110-118, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.04.023.

Rimondi, V., Chiarantini, L., Lattanzi, P., Benvenuti, M., beutel, M., Colica, A., Costagliola, P., Benedetto, F.D., Gabbani, G., Gray, J.E., Pandelil, E., Pattellil, G., Paolieri, M., and Ruggieri, G., 2015, Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy): Italian Journal of Geosciences, 134(2), p. 323-336, doi:10.3301/IJG.2015.02.

Rimondi, V., Gray, J.E., Costagliola, P., Vaselli, O., and Lattanzi, P., 2012, Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy: Science of the Total Environment, 414, p. 318-327, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.065.

Rimondi, V., Costagliola, P., Gray, J.E., Lattanzi, P., Nannucci, M., Paolieri, M., and Salvadori, A., 2014, Mass loads of dissolved and particulate mercury and other trace elements in the Mt. Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy): Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(8), p. 5575-5585, doi:10.1007/s11356-013-2476-1.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., and Woodruff, L.G., 2011, A national-scale geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous United States: Applied Geochemistry, 26(Suppl.), p. S250-S255, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.116.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., Rivera, F.M., Rencz, A.N., and Garrett, R.G., 2012, History and progress of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project, 2001-2010: Earth Science Frontiers, 19(3), p. 19-32. View Smith 2012 article abstract.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., Solano, Federico, and Ellefsen, K.J., 2014, Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014–1082, 386 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20141082.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., Solano, Federico, Kilburn, J.E., and Fey, D.L., 2013, Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 801, 19 p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/801/.

Smith, D.B., Ellefsen, K.J., and Kilburn, J.E., 2010, Geochemical data for Colorado soils—Results from the 2006 state-scale geochemical survey: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 520, 9 p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/520/.

Smith, D.B., Garrett, R.G., Closs, L.G., Ellefsen, K.J., Kilburn, J.E., Horton, J.D., and Smith, S.M., 2011, Geochemical mapping of the Denver, Colorado (USA) urban area: A comparison of studies in 1972 and 2005, chap. 30 of Johnson, C.C., Demetriades, A., Locutura, J., and Ottesen, R.T., eds., Mapping the Chemical Environment of Urban Areas: Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 521-546, doi:10.1002/9780470670071.ch30.

Smith, D.B., Smith, S.M., and Horton, J.D., 2013, History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States: Geoscience Frontiers, 4(2), p. 167-183, doi:10.1016/j.gsf.2012.07.002.

Woodruff, L., Cannon, W.F., Smith, D.B., and Solano, F., 2015, The distribution of selected elements and minerals in soil of the conterminous United States: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 154, p. 49-60, doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2015.01.006.

Abstracts

Cannon, W.F., Smith, D.B., Solano, F., Westphal, T., and Jackson, J., 2012, Maps of the mineral content of soils of the conterminous United States: Proceedings of the 34th International Geological Congress, Brisbane, Australia, August 5-10, 2012, CD-ROM.

Cannon, W.F., Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., Solano, F., Westphal, T., and Jackson, J., 2012, Some maps of chemical and mineralogical composition of the conterminous U.S.: Sixth Workshop of the Northeast Soil Monitoring Cooperative, Troy, NY, March 13, 2012.

Cannon, W.F., Smith, D.B., Solano, F.o, and Woodruff, L.G., 2012, Using quantitative mineralogy to enhance interpretations of national-scale patterns of trace element distributions in soil-results from the USGS soil geochemical and mineralogical survey of the conterminous United States: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 44, no. 7, p. 410. View Cannon 2012 GSA abstract.

Cannon, W.F., and Solano, F., 20215, Quantitative mineralogy of soils of the conterminous United States: 27th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, April 20-24, 2014, Tucson, AZ.

Cannon, W.F., Solano, F., and Westphal, T., 2013, Quartz distribution in A-horizon soils of the conterminous U.S.—Its effect on major and trace element distribution patterns: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 866. View Cannon 2013 GSA abstract.

Cannon, W.F., Solano, F., Westphal, T.M., and Jackson, J.C., 2011, Preliminary Maps of the Mineral Content of U.S. Soils: Environmental Measurement Symposium, A Combined Meeting of The National Environmental Monitoring Conference and The Forum on Laboratory Accreditation, Bellevue, WA, August 15-19, 2011.

Cannon, W.F., Solano, F., Westphal, T.M., and Jackson, J.C., 2011, Progress Towards U.S. National Maps of Soil Mineralogy by X-ray Diffraction Analysis: Environmental Measurement Symposium, A Combined Meeting of The National Environmental Monitoring Conference and The Forum on Laboratory Accreditation, Bellevue, WA, August 15-19, 2011.

Cannon, W.F., Solano, F., Woodruff, L.G., and Smith, D.B., 2015, Lead in soil of the conterminous United States - Natural vs. anthropogenic influences: 27th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, April 20-24, 2014, Tucson, AZ, 4 p. View Cannon IAGS abstract. [PDF file, 808 kb]

Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., and Smith, D.B., 2011, Progress toward a U.S. national map of mercury in soils: The 10th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, July 24-29, 2011, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Ellefsen, K.J., Smith, D.B., and Fey, D.L., 2015, Imputation of left-censored geochemical concentrations using spatial and measurement-error information: 17th Annual Conference of the International Association of Mathematical Geosciences, 5-13 September, 2015, Freiberg, Germany.

Ellefsen, K.J., Smith, D.B., and Horton, J.D., 2013, Mixture-model clustering of regional geochemical data: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 867. View Ellefsen GSA abstract.

Ellefsen, K.J., Smith, D.B., and Horton, J.D., 2013, A modified procedure for multivariate clustering os soil geochemical data and its application: CoDa Work, 5th International Workshop on Compositional Data Analysis, 3-7 June 2014, Vorau, Austria.

Gray, J.E., Fey, D.L., Goldstein, H., and Reynolds, R.L., 2008, Mercury Deposition and Flux in Narraguinnep Reservoir, Southwestern Colorado, USA, in Proceedings of the Goldschmidt Conference, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, July, 2008: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 72(S-12), p. A324, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.05.010.

Gray, J.E., Rimondi, V., Costagliola, P., and Lattanzi, P., 2013, Transport of mercury from a mined area and uptake of mercury by fish in the Tiber River, Italy: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 98. View Gray 2013 GSA abstract.

Gray, J.E., Theodorakos, P.M., and Hines, M.E., 2008, Mercury Methylation Influenced by Eutrophic Conditions in Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, Idaho: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 40, No. 6, p. 361. View Gray 2008 GSA abstract.

Grunsky, E.C., Drew, L.J., and Smith, D.B., 2013, Characterization and classification of soil geochemistry within the conterminous United States: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 866. View Grunsky GSA abstract.

Ma, L., Xia, K., Williams, M.A., and Smith, D.B., 2013, Bioavailable amino acids in soils of north-south and west-east transects of continental United States: Soil Science Society of American Annual Meeting, 3-6 November, 2013, Tampla, FL.

Morman, S.A, and Smith, D.B., 2011, Use of U.S. Geological Survey geochemistry databases to assist environmental exposure assessment: Future linkage with the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: National Environmental Public Health Tracking Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, September 12-15, 2011.

Morman, S.A., and Smith, D.B., 2011, Bioaccessibility studies using in vitro extraction methods on soils of North America: Environmental Measurement Symposium, A Combined Meeting of The National Environmental Monitoring Conference and The Forum on Laboratory Accreditation, Bellevue, WA, August 15-19, 2011.

Reimann, C., Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., and Flem, B., 2011, Variations in Pb concentrations and Pb-isotope ratios in soils collected along an east-west transect across the United States: 9th International Symposium on Applied Isotope Geochemistry, September 19-23, 2011, Tarragona, Spain.

Rimondi, V., Costagliola, P., Gray, J.E., Lattanzi, P., Vaselli, O., and Benvenuti, M.M., 2011, Mercury distribution and transport in the ecosystem of Paglia River (Monte Amiata, Italy): International Conference of Biogeochemistry of Trace Element.

Rimondi, V., Costagliola, P., Gray J.E., Lattanzi, P., Vaselli, O., and Benvenutim, M.M., 2011, Mercury distribution and transport ecosystem of the Paglia River (Monte Amiata, Italy): GeoItalia, VIII Earth Science Forum of Italy, Epitome, v. 4, p. 87, Sept. 19-23, 2011, Torino, Italy.

Rimondi, V., Costagliola, P., Gray, J.E., Vaselli, O., Benvenuti, M.M., and Lattanzi, P., 2011, Mercury diffusion in fish of the Hg mining district of Monte Amiata, Southern Tuscany, Italy: European Geophysical Union (EGU) General Assembly 2011, Geophysical Research Abstracts, v. 13, EGU2011-11820, Florence, Italy.

Roberto, C.L.F.A., Sallun, a.E.M., Smith, D.B., and Sallun Filho, W., 2013, Low-density geochemical survey in sub-cell from State of São Paulo, Brazil: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 786. View Roberto GSA abstract.

Smith, D.B., 2012, Continental-scale Soil Geochemical Survey of North America: CCOP Geochemical Mapping Seminar, Nanjing, China, March 28-29, 2012.

Smith, D.B., 2010, Arsenic distribution in soils of the United States and Canada: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, p. 549. View Smith GSA abstract.

Smith, D.B., 2010, The North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project: Florida International University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami, FL, October 15, 2010.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., and Woodruff, L.G., 2013, Mapping the distribution of arsenic in soils of the conterminous United States: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 867. View Smith 2013 GSA abstract.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., and Woodruff, L.G., 2013, Distribution of arsenic in soils of the conterminous United States: Arsenic Contamination of Food and Water Symposium, 245th American Chemical Society National Meeting, 10 April, 2013, New Orleans, LA. [Invited] View Smith ACS abstract. Related ACS Press Conference.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., and Woodruff, L.G., 2012, Mapping the geochemistry and mineralogy of soils of the conterminous United States: Proceedings of the 34th International Geological Congress, Brisbane, Australia, August 5-10, 2012, CD-ROM.

Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., Woodruff, L.G., and Solano, F., 2014, Distribution of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Ba in soils of the conterminous United States: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 46, No. 6, p. 302. View Smith 2014 GSA abstract.

Smith, D.B., Garrett, R.G., Closs, L.G., and Ellefsen, K.J., 2011, Monitoring soil geochemistry in the urban environment: A comparison of studies in 1972 and 2005 in Denver, Colorado: Environmental Measurement Symposium, A Combined Meeting of The National Environmental Monitoring Conference and The Forum on Laboratory Accreditation, Bellevue, WA, August 15-19, 2011.

Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., and Cannon, W.F., 2011, The North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project: History, objectives, accomplishments: Environmental Measurement Symposium, A Combined Meeting of The National Environmental Monitoring Conference and The Forum on Laboratory Accreditation, Bellevue, WA, August 15-19, 2011.

Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., Cannon, W.F., and Solano, F., 2015, Mapping the soil geochemistry and mineralogy of the conterminous United States—Evolution and sucessful completion of a continental-sclae, government-sponsored survey: 27th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, April 20-24, 2014, Tucson, AZ, 7 p. View Smith IAGS abstract. [PDF file, 1.8 MB]

Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., Cannon, W.F., and Solano, F., 2014, Distribution of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Ba in soils of the conterminous United States: 30th Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water, and Energy, 20-23 October, 2014, Amhest, MA, Abstract Book, p. 175.

Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., Cannon, W.F., and Solano, F., 2014, Arsenic in soils of the conterminous United States―Results from the new national-scale soil geochemical study by the U.S. Geological Survey: 30th Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water, and Energy, 20-23 October, 2014, Amhest, MA, Abstract Book, p. 85.

Solano, F., Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., and Woodruff, L.G., 2013, A dynamic database for geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United Stated collected for the USGS Geochemical Landscapes Project: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 866. View Solano GSA abstract.

Solano, F., Smith, D.B., Woodruff, L.G., and Cannon, W.F., 2015, A new version of the interactive website for geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States: 27th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, April 20-24, 2014, Tucson, AZ.

Vaselli, O.,Benvenuti, M.M., Costagliola, P., Gray, J.E., and Lattanzi, P., 2011, Atmospheric Mercury in the Mt. Amiata area (Tuscany, Italy): new insights from the Abbadia San Salvatore mining areas and CO2-rich degassing vents [abs.]: European Geophysical Union (EGU) General Assembly 2011, Geophysical Research Abstracts, v. 13, EGU2011-11820, Florence, Italy.

Wang, B., Hults, C.P., Eberl, D.D., and Gough, L., 2013, Geochemistry and mineralogy in soils from a N/S trans-Alaska transect: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 868. View Wang GSA abstract.

Woodruff, L.G., Cannon, W.F., and Smith, D.B., 2011, Distribution of trace and potentially toxic elements in soils at the national scale: The USGS Geochemical Landscapes Project: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 43, No. 5, p. 121. View Woodruff 2011 GSA abstract.

Woodruff, L.G., Cannon, W.F., and Smith, D.B., 2011, Mercury in soils along two continental-scale transects, Canada and the United States: The 10th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, July 24-29, 2011, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Woodruff, L.G., Cannon, W.F., Smith, D.B., Solano, F., and Westphal, T., 2012, Geochemistry and mineralogy of soils in the Great Lakes region in a national perspective: The U.S. Geological Survey Landscape Geochemistry Project: Western Great Lakes Resource Management Conference, Ashland, WI, April 17-18, 2012.

Woodruff, L.G., Cannon, W.F., Smith, D.B., Solano, Federico, and Westphal, Tiffani, 2012, Soil geochemistry and mineralogy for the conterminous United States - The USGS Geochemical Landscapes Soil Survey: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 44, no. 7, p. 411. View Woodruff 2012 GSA abstract.

Woodruff, L.G., and Smith, D.B., 2011, Preliminary continental-scale soil geochemistry from the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project: Environmental Measurement Symposium, A Combined Meeting of The National Environmental Monitoring Conference and The Forum on Laboratory Accreditation, Bellevue, WA, August 15-19, 2011.

Woodruff, L.G., Smith, D.B., and Cannon, W.F., 2014, Phosphorus in soils of the upper Midwest, United States: 30th Annual International Conference on Soils, Sediments, Water, and Energy, 20-23 October, 2014, Amhest, MA, Abstract Book, p. 176.

Woodruff, L.G., Smith, D.B., and Cannon, W.F., 2013, Soil geochemistry and mineralogy for the conterminous United States - Results from the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project: United Nations World Soil Day - EuroGeoSurveys Workshop, December 5, 2013, Rome, Italy.

Woodruff, L.G., Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., and Solano, F., 2015, Distribution of selected elements in soils of the conterminous United States: 27th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, April 20-24, 2014, Tucson, AZ, 5 p. View Woodruff IAGS abstract. [PDF file, 3.3 MB]

Woodruff, L.G., Smith, D.B., Cannon, W.F., and Solano, F., 2013, New soil geochemistry and mineralogy for the conterminous United States: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 45, No. 7, p. 866. View Woodruff 2013 GSA abstract.

Woodruff, L.G., Smith, D.B., and Cannon, W.F., 2012, Continental-scale soil geochemistry from the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project: Proceedings of the 34th International Geological Congress, Brisbane, Australia, August 5-10, 2012, CD-ROM.

Woodruff, L.G., Smith, D.B., and Cannon, W.F., 2011, Element distributions in 0 to 5 cm depth soils: preliminary results from the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project: Environmental Measurement Symposium, A Combined Meeting of The National Environmental Monitoring Conference and The Forum on Laboratory Accreditation, Bellevue, WA, August 15-19, 2011.

Xia, K., Ma, L., Moon, J., Williams, M.A., and Smith, D.B., 2013, Soil organic C speciation in surface and subsurface soils of north-south and west-east transects of continental United States: Carbon K-edge NEXAFS spectroscopic investigation: Soil Science Society of American Annual Meeting, 3-6 November, 2013, Tampla, FL.

Partners

Geological Survey of Canada

Servicio Geológico Mexicano (Mexican Geological Survey)

The use of firm, trade, and brand names is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. government.

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