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Cesium and Rubidium
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Cesium, the most electropositive and least abundant of the five naturally occurring alkali metals, was discovered spectroscopically in 1860.  The first cesium metal was produced in 1881.  Because cesium is not mined domestically, the United States is completely dependent on imports.  Historically, the most important use for cesium has been in research and development, primarily in chemical and electrical applications.

Rubidium was discovered in 1861 but had extremely limited industrial use until the 1920s.  Small quantities of rubidium-containing minerals were mined in the United States prior to the mid-1960s, but rubidium is no longer mined domestically.  Historically, the most important use for rubidium has been in research and development, primarily in chemical and electronic applications.

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