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Molybdenum
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Molybdenum (Mo) is a refractory metallic element used principally as an alloying agent in steel, cast iron, and superalloys to enhance hardenability, strength, toughness, and wear and corrosion resistance.   To achieve desired metallurgical properties, molybdenum, primarily in the form of molybdic oxide or ferromolybdenum, is frequently used in combination with or added to chromium, columbium (niobium), manganese, nickel, tungsten, or other alloy metals.   The versatility of molybdenum in enhancing a variety of alloy properties has ensured it a significant role in contemporary industrial technology, which increasingly requires materials that are serviceable under high stress, expanded temperature ranges, and highly corrosive environments.   Moreover, molybdenum finds significant usage as a refractory metal in numerous chemical applications, including catalysts, lubricants, and pigments.   Few of molybdenum's uses have acceptable substitutions.

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