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Unconventional Resources of Rare Elements:

The Bearing of Source and Process on the Genesis of Residual Deposits

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Foley, N., Bern, C., Ayuso, R., Hubbard, B., Shah, A., 2015, Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of REE in granite-derived regolith of the southeastern United States: short paper at 13th Biennial Meeting, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits,  "Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World",  Nancy, France, 4 p.

Ayuso, R.A., and Foley, Nora K., 2014, Weathering-related mobility of rare earth elements in high-alumina altered metavolcanic deposits, South Carolina, USA: Geological Society of America Southeast section meeting, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 46, No. 3, p.78. https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2014SE/webprogram/Paper237135.html

Ayuso, R., Tucker, R., Peters, S., Foley, N.K. Jackson, J., Robinson, S., Bove, M., 2013, Preliminary radiogenic isotope study on the origin of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan: in Journal of Geochemical Exploration (2013),Volume 133, October 2013, p. 6-14.

Bern, Carleton R., and Foley, Nora, 2014, The role of topography in generating economic concentrations of ion-exchangeable rare earth elements: Geological Society of America (SE section meeting), Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 46, No. 3, p.91.

Bern, Carleton, and Foley, Nora K., 2014, Critical Zone weathering and your smartphone: Understanding how mineral decomposition and colloid redistribution can generate rare earth element deposits: American Geophysical Union, Dec 2014 meeting, San Francisco, Abstracts with program, Session 3360, Paper 8190

Bern, C. R., Shah, A.K. 2013, Geochemical and mineralogical aspects of heavy mineral sands as potential REE resources in the southeast U.S.: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 45, No. 7, p.277.

Bern, C.R., Thompson, A., and Chadwick, O.A., 2013, Physical erosion beneath the surface: quantifying colloidal gains and losses in soil: GSA Abstracts with Programs, V. 45, no. 7, p. 408.

Bern, C.R., Thompson, A., and Chadwick, O.A. 2015. Quantification of colloidal and aqueous element transfer in soils: The dual-phase mass balance model. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Volume 151, 15 February 2015, Pages 1–18, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2014.12.008.

Cosenza A., Ayuso R. A., Foley N., Albanese S., Lima A., Messina A., and De Vivo B., 2013, The origin of geochemical anomalies in top soils of Eastern-Central Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy): Goldschmidt Conference 2013, Mineralogical Magazine, 77(5) 920.

Cosenza A., Ayuso R. A., Foley N., Albanese S., Lima A., Messina A., and De Vivo B., 2012, The geogenic vs anthropogenic source of element anomalies in Eastern-Central Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy): Rend. Online Societa Geologica Italiana, Volume 21, p. 265-267 (Cod.SGI 45079), Roma.

Foley, Nora K. , and Ayuso, Robert A., 2013, Rare earth element mobility in high-alumina altered metavolcanic deposits, South Carolina, USA: in Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Volume 133, October 2013, Pages 50–67.

Foley, Nora, Ayuso, Robert, Bern, Carleton R., Hubbard, Bernard E., Shah, Anjana K., and Vazquez, Jorge A., 2014, REE Distribution and Mobility in Residual Deposits Associated with Altered Granites: A Review and Comparison of Global Data-Sets in the Search for REE-Clay Deposits Outside of China:  Geological Society of America, Southeastern Section - 63rd Annual Meeting (10–11 April 2014), Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 46, No. 3, p.91.

Foley, Nora K., Ayuso, R.A., Bern, C.R., Hubbard, B.E., and Vazquez, J.A., 2014, REE Distribution and Mobility in Regolith formed on Granite Bedrock of the Southeast United States [extended abstract]: Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 14th Quadrennial International Association on the Genesis of Ore Deposits Symposium, Aug 19-22, 2014, Mineral Resources: Discovery and Utilization, Kunming, China,  4p.

Foley, N.K., De Vivo, Benedetto, Salminen, Reijo, editors, 2013, Rare Earth Elements: The role of geology, exploration, and analytical geochemistry in ensuring diverse sources of supply and a globally sustainable resource: Special Issue, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Volume 133, Pages 1-214 (October 2013).

Foley, N., and Jaskula, B., 2013, Gallium—A smart metal: USGS Factsheet 2013-3006 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2013/3006/).

Hubbard, Bernard E., and Foley, Nora, 2014, Planned remote sensing and laboratory spectral characterization of residual clay-hosted ion-adsorption type rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with deeply weathered laterite and bauxite soils: Geological Society of America (SE section meeting), Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 46, No. 3, p.91.

Schulte, R.F., and Foley, N.K., 2014, Compilation of gallium resource data for bauxite deposits: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013–1272, 14 p., 3 separate tables, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1272/.


Ayuso, R., Haeussler, P., Bradley, D., Farris, D., Foley, N., and Wandless, G., 2009, The role of ridge subduction in determining the geochemistry and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic evolution of the Kodiak batholith in southern Alaska: Tectonophysics, v.464, p. 137-163.

Bao, Z. and Zhao, Z., 2007, Geochemistry of mineralization with exchangeable REY (rare earth element (REE) and yttrium) in the weathering crusts of granitic rocks in south China: Ore Geology Reviews, v. 33, p. 519- 535.

Bern, C., Chadwick, O., Hartshorn, A., Khomo, L., Chorover, J., 2011, A mass-balance model to separate and quantify colloidal and solute redistributions in soil: Chemical Geology, v.282, p.113-119.

Chengyu, W., Dianhao, H., and Zhongxun, G., 1990, REE geochemistry in the weathered crust of granites, Longnan area, Jiangxi Province: Acta Geologica Sinica, v. 3, n. 2, p. 193- 209.

Foley, N., Ayuso, R., and Orris, G., 2002, Developing lifecycle models for specialty clay deposits: in Scott, P. and Bristow, C, Industrial Minerals and Extractive Geology, Geological Society of London, p. 225-234.

Foley, N., and Ayuso, R., 2008, Mineral sources and transport pathways for arsenic release in a coastal watershed, USA: GEEA (Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis), Geological Society of London, v. 8, p. 77-89.

Foley, N., 2012, The behavior of REE in high-alumina alteration zones formed by weathering of felsic volcanic rocks [abs]: The 22nd V.M. Goldschmidt Conference, Montreal, Canada. http://goldschmidtabstracts.info/2012/1712.pdf

Gammons, C., Wood, S., Williams-Jones, A., 1996, The aqueous geochemistry of the rare earth elements and yttrium: VI. Stability of Ned chloride complexes from 25 to 300 degrees C. GCA 61, p. 1971-1983.

Hubbard, B.E., Gillis, A., Parikh, M., Merits, D., and Walter, R.C., 2006, Remote sensing of land use/cover factors influencing soil erosion in the Little Conestoga watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania [abstract]: Geological Society of America, vol. 38, no. 7, p. 54.

Long, K., Van Gosen, B, Foley, N.K., and Cordier, D., 2010, The Principal Rare Earth Elements Deposits of the United States-A Summary of Domestic Deposits and a Global Perspective: USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5220, 96p.

Mentani, T., Ohmura, T., Watanabe, Y., and Urabe, T., 2010, So-called "ion-adsorption type" REE deposit9s found in weathered crust of ilmenite-series granite in Vietnam [abstract]: Geological Society of America no. 132-12.

Sanematsu, K., Kon, Y., Imai, A., Wantanabe, K., and Watanabe, Y., 2011, Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of ion-adsorption type REE mineralization in Phuket, Thailand: Mineralium Deposita, DOI 10.1007/s00126-011-0380-5.

Tollo, R., Aleinkoff, J., Bartholomew, M., Rankin, D., 2004, Neoproterozoic A-type granitoids of the central and southern Appalachians: intraplate magmatism associated with rifting of the Rodinian supercontinent: Precambrian Research, 128, p. 3-38.

Wu, C, Yuan, Z, and Bai, G., 1996, Rare earth deposits in China, in Jones, Wall, and Williams (editors), Rare Earth Minerals, Chemistry, origin, and ore deposits, v.7, Chapman and Hall, 372 p. (p. 281-310).

Wu, C. and Ishihara, S., 1994, Rare Earth Element geochemistry of the Southern Thailand granites: Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, v. 10, n. 1-2, p. 81-94.

Yang, X. Jin, Lin, Aijun, Li, Xiao-Liang, Wu, Yiding, Zhou, Wenbin, and Chen, Zhanheng, 2013, China’s ion adsorption rare earth re sources, mining consequences and preservation: Environmental Development 8: 131-136.

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